The impact of exercise-only-based rehabilitation on depression and anxiety in patients after myocardial infarction. 165, 763–768. Age affects exercise-induced improvements in heart rate response to exercise. Physiol Rep. 2016 Nov;4(21):e13022. – Cardiovascular rehabilitation and interval exercise had unique advantages, which should be recommended for MI patients. High-intensity interval training improves metabolic syndrome and body composition in outpatient cardiac rehabilitation patients with myocardial infarction. The improvement of activated sympathetic drive was associated with elevated NO bioavailability in paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of chronic heart failure rats induced by MI during 3-week progressive treadmill exercise (Sharma et al., 2019). A cross-sectional study of 65 men (60 ± 6 years) found that lifelong exercise training maintained LV systolic function and probably alleviated or minimized the detrimental effects of LV remodeling after MI in veteran athletes (Maessen et al., 2017). (2018). Biol. following myocardial infarction; ECG — elecrocardio-graphic; HR — heart rate. 227, 229–238. 483 Ryszard Piotrowicz, Jadwiga Wolszakiewicz, Cardiac rehabilitation following MI www.cardiologyjournal.org Dynamic exercise is recommended throughout stage I rehabilitation. (2010). In China, the mortality of acute MI increased 5.6-fold from 1987 to 2014 (Chang et al., 2017). This ailment develops for a long time and fatal completion can be prevented much earlier than when the cardiovascular system reaches an extreme degree of deterioration. Moreover, CR contributed to a decrease in all-cause mortality, cardiac mortality, and reinfarction risk (Lawler et al., 2011) and helped to regulate cardiovascular-risk-related factors, such as blood pressure, body weight, smoking, and lipid profile (Lawler et al., 2011). J. (2017). Cardiac rehabilitation is an integral component of the care for patients who have undergone acute myocardial infarction, after invasive coronary procedures and those with chronic stable angina. Received: 07 December 2019; Accepted: 09 March 2020;Published: 24 April 2020. Dis. Am. (2019). There was a close relationship between cardio protection against myocardial injury induced by exercise pretreatment and cardiac natriuretic peptide receptor B (NPR-B) and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) (Lu and Pan, 2017). 1989; 80:234–244. RESULTS:At baseline no intergroup differences were seen in the duration of exercise, workload and heart rate variability parameters. 67, 1–12. Heart Circ. This article provides an overview of current recommendations regarding cardiac rehabilitation (CR) after myocardial infarction and its clinical application. Circulation 94, 323–330. Myocardial Infarction rehabilitation guidelines It is important that the Cardiac Rehabilitation Programme is created and overseen by a multidisciplinary team. CR for 3 years showed reduced major adverse cardiovascular events (e.g., MI) compared to those without CR (9.9 vs. 18.3%) (Lee et al., 2019). Biophys. Int. In the early stages of MI, MIT is the best choice to improve the outcomes for MI patients.  |  AU - Leon, A. S. PY - 2000/1/1. (2018). Parasympathetic effects on cardiac electrophysiology during exercise and recovery. doi: 10.1136/bmj.307.6914.1244, Xu, X., Wan, W., Garza, M. A., and Zhang, J. Q. (2001). Sci. Physiol. American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines recommend exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation and suggest exercise to add to patients' routine treatment. This type of treatment should be standardized and widely applied in clinics to help MI patients all over the world. 2047487319885458. doi: 10.1177/2047487319885458, Bozi, L. H., Maldonado, I. R., Baldo, M. P., Silva, M. F., Moreira, J. Res. To determine whether or not these studies, in the aggregate, show a significant benefit of rehabilitation after myocardial infarction, we performed an overview of all randomized trials, involving 4,554 patients; we evaluated total and cardiovascular mortality, sudden death, and fatal and nonfatal reinfarction. doi: 10.1016/j.pcad.2019.01.004. Leon AS. In summary, as shown in Table 1, well-planned HIT may have better effects than MIT and LIT, while LIT may be safer compared to MIT and HIT. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation for coronary heart disease: cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis. doi: 10.1161/01.cir.94.3.323, Alkhatib, A., and Klonizakis, M. (2014). doi: 10.1007/s12013-015-0553-4, Maessen, M. F., Eijsvogels, T. M., Stevens, G., van Dijk, A. P., and Hopman, M. T. (2017). Fully adjusted for age, sex, date of myocardial infarction, body mass index, estimated glomerular filtration rate, EuroQol‐5 dimensions, ejection fraction, ST ‐elevation myocardial infarction, percutaneous coronary intervention, smoking status, pharmacological treatment, participation in cardiac rehabilitation training, and an interaction term for time × PA strata. BackgroundWhile patient performance after participating in cardiac rehabilitation programmes after acute myocardial infarction is regularly … 26, 33–44. Physical activity (PA) is a crucial preventive measure against CVD (Jefferis et al., 2019), which is recognized as part of occupation, active transportation, leisure, and daily living, such as walking for several minutes in the park and chatting with a friend, and the leg muscles voluntarily contract and the energy expenditure ascends exponentially from baseline levels (Moraes-Silva et al., 2017). The effects of different initiation time of exercise training on left ventricular remodeling and cardiopulmonary rehabilitation in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction. Eur. Long-term physical activity after a myocardial infarction: a permanent challenge. Prev. Am Heart J. J Assoc Physicians India. Cardiac rehabilitation benefits many who have experienced myocardial infarction, even if there has been substantial heart damage and resultant left ventricular failure. doi: 10.1016/j.niox.2019.03.005, Song, P. S., Kim, M. J., Jeon, K. H., Lim, S., Park, J. S., Choi, R. K., et al. 48, 146–153. For a substantial minority of families such consequences are profound. doi: 10.1007/978-981-10-4307-9_9, Niederseer, D., Ledl-Kurkowski, E., Kvita, K., Patsch, W., Dela, F., Mueller, E., et al. – In the early stages of MI, moderate-intensity exercise is the best choice to improve the outcomes for MI patients. J. Keywords: cardiopulmonary exercise testing, myocardial infarction, cardiac rehabilitation. Am. Marchionni N, Fattirolli F, Fumagalli S, et al . Prev. Int. The effect of exercise training intensity on quality of life in heart failure patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Effect of yoga-based cardiac rehabilitation on heart rate variability: randomized controlled trial in patients post-MI. Therefore, MIT was most commonly used in clinics. Arq. Elderly patients (age > 65 years) who underwent the highest level activity had a lower mortality from CVD than those who underwent the lowest level activity (Park et al., 2012). T1 - Exercise following myocardial infarction. Suisse 13, 1084–1087. doi: 10.3349/ymj.2019.60.6.535, Lewinter, C., Doherty, P., Gale, C. P., Crouch, S., Stirk, L., Lewin, R. J., et al. Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation should be addressed by the designated team (physician, physiotherapist, nurse, psychologist, dietician, social worker) immediately after acute phase of myocardial infarction and should contain individualized programs designed to optimize physical, psychological, social and emotional status. Mendes de Leon, C. F., Bang, W., Bienias, J. L., Glass, T. A., Vaccarino, V., and Kasl, S. V. (2005). Effect of short-term exercise training in patients following acute myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Sports Exerc. Biol. In animal experiment, 3-week swimming training may alleviate acute-MI-caused acute cardiac damage by elevating the early adaptive altering of mitochondrial biogenesis and improving myocardial energy metabolism (Tao et al., 2015). doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2018.10.015, Chang, J., Liu, X., and Sun, Y. 50, 494–501. In a cohort study, 37 patients (mean age, 66 years) with MI underwent a 5-week CR program, and the results indicated that cardiac rehabilitation improved QoL, exercise capacity, and autonomic modulation (Fallavollita et al., 2016). (2017). J. Cardiol. Physical activity and exercise are central components in rehabilitation after a myocardial infarction. doi: 10.1159/000374053, Park, S., Lee, J., Kang, D. Y., Rhee, C. W., and Park, B. J. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2000.tb03905.x, Matos-Garcia, B. C., Rocco, I. S., Maiorano, L. D., Peixoto, T. C. A., Moreira, R. S. L., Carvalho, A. C. C., et al. Epub 2014 Aug 19. doi: 10.1089/acm.2016.0309, Zhang, Y. M., Lu, Y., Tang, Y., Yang, D., Wu, H. F., Bian, Z. P., et al. (2013). Reverse left ventricular remodeling: effect of cardiac rehabilitation exercise training in myocardial infarction patients with preserved ejection fraction. doi: 10.1055/s-0033-1351332, Costantino, S., Paneni, F., and Cosentino, F. (2016). Whether exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation provides the same favourable effects in real-life cardiac rehabilitation settings, in the modern era of myocardial infarction treatment, is less well known.  |  This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. Pierleoni P, Pernini L, Belli A, Palma L. Int J Telemed Appl. J. J. 3.half lying or lying. Rehabilitation guideline after Myocardial Infarction 5 There is limited evidence on the safety of the exercise component of cardiac rehabilitation in older people. Regular exercise plays an important role in healthy aging and contributes to lower risk of chronic disease and all-cause mortality (Mora and Valencia, 2018; Adams and Linke, 2019). A prospective cohort study of older British men. (2019b). Hybrid model of cardiac rehabilitation in men and women after myocardial infarction. Prev. Am. After MI, Exercise training may induce positive effects; improve QoL, metabolic equivalents (METs), circulation function, and heart rate; and lower the risk of chronic disease and all-cause mortality (Greif et al., 1995; Adams et al., 2017; Elshazly et al., 2018; Mora and Valencia, 2018) (as shown in Figure 1). Coll. Example of myocardial infarction treatment programme: 1.half lying: relaxation- 5 minutes. Int. Background Randomized trials confirm the benefits of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation on cardiovascular risk factors. Symptoms include chest discomfort with or without dyspnea, nausea, and diaphoresis. J. A total of 130 ST-segment elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients after PCI were randomly divided into 2 groups in the community, rehabilitation group (n = 65) and control group (n = 65). Mc, G. G., Gaze, D., Oxborough, D., O’Driscoll, J., and Shave, R. (2016). Exercise test is an objective evaluation of cardiac function during rehabilitation. doi: 10.1055/s-0035-1565136, Batista, D. F., Goncalves, A. F., Rafacho, B. P., Santos, P. P., Minicucci, M. F., Azevedo, P. S., et al. Evidence shows that exercise- based CR after cardiac events positively affects the extent of disability and level of quality of life, and has also important beneficial role in modifying morbidity and mortality. Salzburg skiing for the elderly study: changes in cardiovascular risk factors through skiing in the elderly. Am. Am. 30, 2–11. Sci. 170, e3–e4. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.118.312669, Lawler, P. R., Filion, K. B., and Eisenberg, M. J. Fitness 56, 311–318. Swimming is a popular recreational activity and unique exercise form, regarded as an effective exercise to maintain and improve CRF (Lazar et al., 2013). Sports Exerc. The combination of RT and aerobic exercise is an effective therapy to lower the risk of CVD. Cardiol. View all Delayed rather than early exercise training attenuates ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction. (2009). Sports Med. HIIT was also superior to MICT in decreasing oxidative stress, improving glucolipid metabolism, and enhancing exercise capability and cardiac function in post-MI rats (Lu K. et al., 2015). (2016). Resistance training after myocardial infarction in rats: its role on cardiac and autonomic function. The mean period from acute myocardial infarction to evaluation of outcomes was 18.8 +/- 3.4 mos. In acute myocardial infarction (MI), patients restore their functions through cardiac rehabilitation. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. The positive prognostic value of CR was recently reinforced by the CROS study [3] and the Cochrane meta-analysis [4], which unequivocally demonstrated, in the PCI era, a reduction in total … 313, H72–H88. doi: 10.17761/2019-00019. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. Exercise pretreatment could also reduce collagen accumulation, thicken infarcted wall, alleviate MI volume, improve muscle strength, enhance responsiveness to calcium, and preserve cardiac myocyte shortening; it could also improve the maximum relengthening and shortening velocities in infarcted hearts of rats (Bozi et al., 2013; Ciolac et al., 2014). ‘The HUNT study, Norway’. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000001464, Hua, L. P., Brown, C. A., Hains, S. J., Godwin, M., and Parlow, J. L. (2009). 40, 924–932. Rehabilitation After Myocardial Infarction by Erika Liovaitu0117, ... (CRP) improves exercise capacity (EC), quality of life (QOL), psychological well-being, however, participation rates are low. Cardiac rehabilitation based on exercise training and heart failure self-care counseling have each been shown to improve clinical status and clinical outcomes. Short-term results of a 5-week comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation program after first-time myocardial infarction. (2016). doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.10.044. doi: 10.1097/HCR.0b013e3181c56b89, Kemmler, W., von Stengel, S., Bebenek, M., and Kalender, W. A. Figure 1. doi: 10.1007/s12576-017-0587-z, Yadav, R., Yadav, R. K., Sarvottam, K., and Netam, R. (2017). doi: 10.1097/PHM.0000000000000290, Kim, C., Choi, H. E., and Lim, Y. J. Tessitore, E., Sigaud, P., Meyer, P., and Mach, F. (2017). Andjic, M., Spiroski, D., Ilic Stojanovic, O., Vidakovic, T., Lazovic, M., Babic, D., et al. Does total volume of physical activity matter more than pattern for onset of CVD? 594, 2061–2073. doi: 10.2217/fca.12.34, Ostman, C., Jewiss, D., and Smart, N. A. (2019). (2019). alternate foot pulling up and pushing down feet circling, q-drill, gluteal contractions. Long-term exercise and risk of metabolic and cardiac diseases: the erlangen fitness and prevention study. Effect of cardiac rehabilitation on outcomes in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction. – Early exercise training, even short-term exercise, is a safe and feasible way to exert protective effects in post-MI patients. Long-term (4 months) low-intensity training (LIT) mitigated the enhancement of myocardial type I and III collagen and lysyl oxidase gene expression in LV (Pagan et al., 2015). J. Cardiol. Cardiac rehabilitation is a multi-factorial intervention recommended by international guidelines to patients with coronary artery disease. As MI is a life threatening event it is hardly surprising that it often causes distress and impairment of quality of life for patients and their relatives, especially partners. An android-based heart monitoring system for the elderly and for patients with heart disease.  |  Following acute MI, patients who participated in interval training or MIT for 12 weeks significantly increased their VO2 peak (Santi et al., 2018). Moreover, MIT was both safe and effective for MI patients; it lowers possible risks as compared to HIT and had better effects as compared to LIT. 40, 647–656. T2 - Current recommendations. Myocardial infarction: cardiac rehabilitation and prevention of further cardiovascular disease. Effect of exercise training on heart rate recovery in patients post anterior myocardial infarction. Eur. Sci. 168, 19–26. [Developing an evidence based clinical guideline on cardiac rehabilitation--Phase 2: comparative analysis of the present level of service provision in cardiac rehabilitation based on the KTL statistics]. doi: 10.1177/2047487314559853, Lhermusier, T., Ohayon, P., Boudou, N., Bouisset, F., Campelo-Parada, F., Roncalli, J., et al. Interval training also had a more beneficial effect in improving VO2 peak from 31.6 ± 5.8 to 36.2 ± 8.6ml kg–1 min–1 as compared to the usual care rehabilitation, which was from 32.2 ± 6.7 to 34.7 ± 7.9ml kg–1 min–1 (Moholdt et al., 2012). 38, 268–276. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. J Cardiopulm Rehabil 1990; 10: 79–87. Med. doi: 10.5603/CJ.a2015.0004, Lavie, C. J., Ozemek, C., Carbone, S., Katzmarzyk, P. T., and Blair, S. N. (2019). J. Cardiol. In a randomized controlled trial lasting 12 weeks, patients with CVD received LIT or HIT, and the significant improvement in VO2 peak had no significant difference (Hua et al., 2009). CVD such as MI are associated with poor health behaviors, such as a sedentary lifestyle. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and is the leading cause of death in the United States.. Cardiac rehabilitation is a complex, interprofessional intervention customized to individual patients with various cardiovascular diseases such as: