Diademed head of Zeus-Ammon right / ΠTOΛEMAIOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ, eagle standing left on thunderbolt; cornucopiae tied with fillet before, ΡX monogram between legs. Attached to it, in Greek characters, was the saying "Τούτῳ Νίκα!" The Ptolemaic kingdom was a Hellenistic dynasty that ruled on Egypt from 305 B.C. The Chi-Rho with a wreath symbolizing the victory of the Resurrection, above Roman soldiers, circa 350. Roman Chi Rho applique in bronze from a Germanic settlement in Neerharen (Belgium), 375-450 CE, Gallo-Roman Museum (Tongeren), Silver ring with Chi Rho symbol found at a Christian burial site in Late Roman Tongeren (Belgium), 4th century CE, Gallo-Roman Museum (Tongeren). The Chi-Rho symbol was used by the Roman emperor Constantine I as vexillum, which is known as Labarum. In his church history, written shortly after the battle, when Eusebius hadn't yet had contact with Constantine, he doesn't mention any dream or vision, but compares the defeat of Maxentius (drowned in the Tiber) to that of the biblical pharaoh and credits Constantine's victory to divine protection. Sequential "XPS" in the Carolingian Godescalc Evangelistary. Christian Chi-Rho on a 5th-century marble table, Quiroga, Galicia. Alexandria. Ptolemy III, AE27, 246-222 BC. It sufficiently well-known that some coins of Ptolemy III Euergetes were marked with a Chi Rho to serve as a control mark, akin to the modern mint mark. Powered by JustWatch. In pre-Christian times, the Chi-Rho symbol was also to mark a particularly valuable or relevant passage in the margin of a page, abbreviating chreston (good). AE41. The Chi-Rho symbol was also used by pagan Greek scribes to mark, in the margin, a particularly valuable or relevant passage; the combined letters Chi and Rho standing for chrēston, meaning "good." Rx: Eagle standing left on thunderbolt, cornucopiae before and C between legs. Early symbols similar to the Chi Rho were the Staurogram () and the IX monogram (). Browse the Ptolemy III page with thumbnail images. AE28, uncertain mint. [16] Though the letters are written one after the other and the "X" and "P" not combined in a monogram, these are known as Chi-Rho pages. Diademed head of Zeus Ammon right / Cult statue of Aphrodite on base, head adorned with modius. The Chi-Rho symbol was also used by pagan Greek scribes to mark, in the margin, a particularly valuable or relevant passage; the combined letters Chi and Rho standing for chrēston, meaning "good." Eusebius of Caesarea (died in 339) gave two different accounts of the events. Alexandria mint, struck 221-205 BC under Ptolemy IV. [11], After Constantine, the Chi-Rho became part of the official imperial insignia. [13], In 2020, archaeologists discovered in Vindolanda in northern England a 5th-century chalice covered in religious iconography, including the Chi-Rho.[14][15]. The Chi-Rho symbol was also used by pagan Greek scribes to mark, in the margin, a particularly valuable or relevant passage; the combined letters Chi and Rho standing for chrēston, meaning "good." AE 32mm. Svoronos 918; Kinns 18; Righetti Collection sale 47. Ptolemy III, 246-221 BC, AE29mm, minted on Cyprus. Alexandria mint. Svoronos 969 var. ", Eusebius also left a description of the labarum, the military standard which incorporated the Chi-Rho sign, used by Emperor Constantine in his later wars against Licinius. [12] In Roman Britannia, a tesselated mosaic pavement was uncovered at Hinton St. Mary, Dorset, in 1963. Uncertain Cypriot mint. Ptolemy III. [18] The Book of Kells has a second Chi-Rho abbreviation on folio 124 in the account of the Crucifixion of Christ,[19] and in some manuscripts the Chi-Rho occurs at the beginning of Matthew rather than mid-text at Matthew 1:18. Some coins of Ptolemy III Euergetes (r. 246–222 BC) were marked with a Chi-Rho. Svoronos 967; SNG Cop 178. Svoronos 969 var. The earliest usage of the Chi-Rho symbol is known from bronze coins issued by Ptolemy III in 246–222 BCE. The Chi Rho (/ˈkaɪ ˈroʊ/; also known as chrismon[1]) is one of the earliest forms of christogram, formed by superimposing the first two (capital) letters—chi and rho (ΧΡ)—of the Greek word ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ (Christos) in such a way that the vertical stroke of the rho intersects the center of the chi.[2]. Constantinople Christian sarcophagus with XI monogram, circa 400. Egypt. Diademed bust of Ptolemy right, in aegis / ΠTOΛEMAIOY ΣΩTHΡOΣ, eagle standing left on thunderbolt; monogram before, monogram behind. AE drachm, 246-222 BC. Ptolemy III AE 20mm. Some coins of Ptolemy III Euergetes (r. 246–222 BC) were marked with a Chi-Rho. Ptolemy III AE 29mm. Head of Zeus-Ammon right / Eagle standing left on thunderbolt. Text: Svoronos 974: Ptolemy III Euergetes. Some coins of Ptolemy III Euergetes (r. 246–222 BC) were marked with a Chi-Rho. Daniel Wolf's database of Ptolemaic Bronzes, Search for Ptolemy III Euergetes I in the British SNG Volumes' Database at the Fitzwilliam Museum. Ptolemy III AR Tetradrachm. Monogramme of Christ (the Chi Rho) on a plaque of a sarcophagus, 4th-century CE, marble, Musei Vaticani, on display in a temporary exhibition at the Colosseum in Rome, Italy. Ptolemy III AE16. [17] The "X" was regarded as the crux decussata, a symbol of the cross; this idea is found in the works of Isidore of Seville and other patristic and Early Medieval writers. Ptolemy III Euergetes. AE 30mm. Ptolemy III, struck 244-243 BC, AE23mm. Eusebius wrote in the Vita that Constantine himself had told him this story "and confirmed it with oaths" late in life "when I was deemed worthy of his acquaintance and company." Ptolemy 246 222 BCE: Evidence of the chi-rho on coins appears for the first time in the third century BCE on a Greek bronze of Ptolemy III (246 222 BCE). Alexandria mint. 246-222 BC. The Chi Rho symbol has two Unicode codepoints: .mw-parser-output .monospaced{font-family:monospace,monospace}U+2627 ☧ CHI RHO in the Miscellaneous symbols block and U+2CE9 ⳩ COPTIC SYMBOL KHI RO in the Coptic block. Diademed and horned head of Zeus-Ammon right / ΠTOΛEMAIOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ Eagle standing left on thunderbolt, head turned, wings closed, cornucopia before, Chi-Rho monogram between legs. GREEK ANCIENT COIN MINOTAUR OF CRETE LABYRINTH.SILVER.VERY … At noon, Constantine saw a cross of light imposed over the sun. Some coins of Ptolemy III Euergetes (r. 246–222 BC) were marked with a Chi-Rho. 38mm, 50.55 g. Head of Zeus-Ammon right, wearing taenia / ΠTOΛEMAIOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ, Eagle standing left on thunderbolt; wings closed, head right, cornucopiae over shoulder, E between legs. Famous examples are in the Book of Kells and Book of Lindisfarne. Head of Alexander right, wearing elephant skin headdress, horn of Ammon and aegis / ΠTOΛEMAIOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ, eagle standing left on thunderbolt, E between legs. "CENTURION" of the Roman Army Epigraphic evidence indicates that a CHI above RHO represented an abbreviation Some coins of Ptolemy III Euergetes (r. 246–222 BC) were marked with a Chi-Rho. [3] Some coins of Ptolemy III Euergetes (r. 246–222 BC) were marked with a Chi-Rho. Diademed head of Ptolemy I, struck in high relief & fine style / eagle standing left on thunderbolt. The Chi-Rho symbol ☧, Catacombs of San Callisto, Rome. Svoronos 975; SNG Cop 231; Weiser 93. Sarcophagus with Chi-Rho symbol and Alpha and Omega, 6th century, Soissons, France. BMC 103, SNG Cop 196. 3.36g. Head of Zeus-Ammon / Eagle standing left on thunderbolt, club in left field. P&P: + £10.00 P&P . Reconstruction of Chi-Rho fresco from Roman villa at Lullingstone, including Alpha and Omega. The usurper Magnentius appears to have been the first to use the Chi-Rho monogram flanked by Alpha and Omega, on the reverse of some coins minted in 353. BMC 64f. Early symbols similar to the Chi Rho were the Staurogram and the IX monogram (). 246-221 BC. P&P: + £10.00 P&P . Svoronos 977. SNGCop 645. Roman Christian mosaic with Chi-Rho, Hinton St. Mary, England. Diademed head of Zeus-Ammon right. Early symbols similar to the Chi Rho were the Staurogram and the IX monogram (). Bien que formé en caractère grec, le dispositif sert d’abréviation dans le texte latin avec des terminaisons ajoutées adaptées à un nom latin. AE36. Some coins of Ptolemy III Euergetes (r. 246–222 BC) were marked with a Chi-Rho. 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