Military intelligence has been essential in many wars and battles in U.S. history. "[4] It aligns with the Operational Level of Warfare, defined as "The level of warfare at which campaigns and major operations are planned, conducted, and sustained to achieve strategic objectives within theaters or other operational areas."[4]. Sources can include the following: MI6 is often thought to use human intelligence to operate in different countries or Britain itself to protect the country from global affairs. This includes not only broadcasts of national and local radio and television, but also local military traffic, radar emissions and even microwaved telephone and telegraph traffic, including satellite traffic. This categorization of intelligence was first theorized by developmental psychologist Howard Gardner in his 1983 book, Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences.. Warning Intelligence A significant type of intelligence, usually ignored because of its similarity to current intelligence, is data intended to warn policymakers of sudden major developments, such as the outbreak of wars, military coups, or comparable crises. A good intelligence officer will stay very close to the policy-maker or war fighter to anticipate their information requirements and tailor the information needed. The first is strategic intelligence, general information about the enemy and the world in general. For example, in modern mechanized warfare, the logistics chain for a military unit's fuel supply is often the most vulnerable part of a nation's order of battle. RAND has examined how nations successfully collect intelligence, how the U.S. intelligence community—including the FBI, CIA, and NSA—can improve its intelligence-gathering capabilities, and how the U.S. military can make better use of its … In response to the information requirements, analysts examine existing information, identifying gaps in the available knowledge. ", Operational intelligence is focused on support or denial of intelligence at operational tiers. Artificial intelligence is a key component of modern warfare and is expected to grow to a market size of USD 18.82 billion by 2025. You’ll provide essential information that can often save the lives of Soldiers fighting on front lines. Commandant's Bulletin (Jun 10 1983), p. 34. Where gaps in knowledge exist, the staff may be able to task collection assets to target the requirement. Measurement and signature intelligence (MASINT) are gathered from an array of signatures (distinctive characteristics) of fixed or dynamic target sources. Strategic Intelligence is formally defined as "intelligence required for the formation of policy and military plans at national and international levels", and corresponds to the Strategic Level of Warfare, which is formally defined as "the level of warfare at which a nation, often as a member of a The intelligence cycle is a process of collecting information and developing it into intelligence for use by IC customers. In the U.S. military, Joint Publication 2-0 (JP 2-0) states: "The six categories of intelligence operations are: planning and direction; collection; processing and exploitation; analysis and production; dissemination and integration; and evaluation and feedback.". The U.S. in particular is known to maintain satellites that can intercept cell-phone and pager traffic, usually referred to as the ECHELON system. Critical vulnerabilities are then indexed in a way that makes them easily available to advisors and line intelligence personnel who package this information for policy-makers and war-fighters. U.S. SIGINT satellites are designed and built by the National Reconnaissance Office, although conducting U.S. signals intelligence activities is primarily the responsibility of the National Security Agency (NSA). Be the eyes and ears of the Army with a career in Signals Intelligence. The bulletins may also include consequently resulting information requirements and thus conclude the intelligence cycle. Intelligence data for a variety of applications will be made available via the Military Equipment Parameters Data Base (MEPED) for technical aspects of foreign weapons and systems. "List of intelligence gathering disciplines", Learn how and when to remove this template message, Human intelligence (intelligence gathering), Airborne electro-optical missile tracking MASINT, Optical measurement of nuclear explosions, Effects of ionizing radiation on materials, Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) MASINT, Foreign instrumentation signals intelligence, Counterintelligence and counter-terrorism organizations, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_intelligence_gathering_disciplines&oldid=941796081, Articles needing additional references from April 2019, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 February 2020, at 19:04. This revised edition of JP 2-0, Joint Intelligence, reflects the current guidance for conducting joint and multinational intelligence activities across the range of military operations. The analysis reports are used to inform the remaining planning staff, influencing planning and seeking to predict adversary intent. Ordinary facts like the lunar phase on particular days or the ballistic range of common military weapons are also very valuable to planning, and are habitually collected in an intelligence library. In Psychology, there are two types of intelligence, as identified by American psychologists Raymond Cattell and John Horn: fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence. Measurement and signature intelligence (MASINT) are gathered from an array of signatures (distinctive characteristics) of fixed or dynamic target sources. Once hostilities begin, target selection often moves into the upper end of the military chain of command. Most intelligence activities support the development of operational intelligence. Analysis consists of assessment of an adversary's capabilities and vulnerabilities. "Coast Guard Investigative Service." A variety of intelligence organizations help to meet these needs. Vulnerabilities are usually indexed by the nation and military unit with a list of possible attack methods. Washington, DC: Historical Section, Public Information Division, U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, January 1, 1949. Once ready stocks of weapons and fuel are depleted, logistic concerns are often exported to civilian policy-makers. In a real sense, these are threats and opportunities. Problems with a closed loop include an overall process that is no better than its weakest component and stove piping. This vital keystone publication form s the core of joint intelligence doctrine and SWOT analysis allows intelligence analysts to evaluate those four elements and provide valuable insights into a plan, or an adversary. This is intelligence gained from studying every aspect of foreign natural and man-made environments that could affect the health of military forces. [citation needed]. OSINT can be further segmented by the source type: Internet/General, Scientific/Technical, and various HUMINT specialties, e.g. This is why most intelligence services attach members to foreign service offices. Human intelligence (HUMINT) are gathered from a person in the location in question. This is a list of intelligence gathering disciplines. The process of intelligence has four phases: collection, analysis, processing and dissemination. This vital keystone publication form s the core of joint intelligence doctrine and The tonnage and basic weaponry of most capital ships and aircraft are also public, and their speeds and ranges can often be reasonably estimated by experts, often just from photographs. Analysis reports draw on all available sources of information, whether drawn from existing material or collected in response to the requirement. The role of the military i… These are then flagged as critical vulnerabilities. Areas of study may include the operational environment, hostile, friendly and neutral forces, the civilian population in an area of combat operations, and other broader areas of interest. In some cases, sources will just make up imaginative stories for pay, or they may try to settle grudges by identifying personal enemies as enemies of the state that is paying for the intelligence. Cyber or digital network intelligence (CYBINT or DNINT) are gathered from cyberspace. Open-source intelligence (OSINT) are gathered from open sources. Those pursuing an Intelligence Officer position are required to attend Officer Candidate School (OCS) in Newport, RI. Military Intelligence lieutenant colonels should seek the opportunity for joint qualification, intelligence broadening assignments, as well as professional development through progressive assignments. Generally, policy-makers are presented with a list of threats and opportunities. Information Security & Cyber Intelligence (incl. 37-57)). What is SWOT Analysis? Photointerpreters generally maintain catalogs of munitions factories, military bases and crate designs in order to interpret munition shipments and inventories. Some industrialized nations also eavesdrop continuously on the entire radio spectrum, interpreting it in real time. Analysts generally look for the least defended or most fragile resource that is necessary for important military capabilities. For western democracies, it is extremely rare for journalists to be paid by an official intelligence service, but they may still patriotically pass on tidbits of information they gather as they carry on their legitimate business. The term operation intelligence is used within law enforcement to refer to intelligence that supports long-term investigations into multiple, similar targets. To perform routine tasks in the real world, you need to use both analytical intelligence and creative intelligence. [1] This aim is achieved by providing an assessment of data from a range of sources, directed towards the commanders' mission requirements or responding to questions as part of operational or campaign planning. For example, nuclear threats between the USSR and the U.S. were analyzed in real time by continuously on-duty staffs. Since maps also have valuable civilian uses, these agencies are often publicly associated or identified as other parts of the government. Collection of read materials, composition of units or elements, disposition of strength, training, tactics, personalities (leaders) of these units and elements contribute to the overall intelligence value after careful analysis. Most governments maintain a military intelligence capability to provide analytical and information collection personnel in both specialist units and from other arms and services. In depicting this cycle, the United States Intelligence Community uses … Here is an overview of the multiple intelligences theory, summarized by ASCD: 1. In evaluating their suitability and effectiveness as policy instruments, it is helpful to contextualise them within five simple categories(loosely derived from (Hughes, 2011, pp. SWOT analysis is used to identify the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats of a Person, Group, or Organisation. Formally defined as "Intelligence that is required for planning and conducting campaigns and major operations to accomplish strategic objectives within theaters or operational areas. Congress Also, much public information in a nation may be unavailable from outside the country. This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 20:19. 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