1986. Typical spacings for pulpwood rotations are 6 X 6 ft to 7 X 10 ft, which accommodate tractors. Heat & humidity is critical for germination. causes significant problems with clones from dry areas that are planted in western Washington. Black cottonwood is a large deciduous tree belonging to the willow family (Salicaceae). Trees begin to flower after 10 years of growth. Because of its low density, cottonwood does not readily split during nailing. Most of the remaining volume is evenly distributed between the other regions in Washington and the Northwest subregion of Oregon. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 15:175-181. It is limited by high soil acidity, inadequate aeration, and low nutrient supplies. One way to do that is by spraying the tree with a growth regulator that contains ethephon. Green 4/4 lumber can be dried in 8 to 12 days, and air-dried material can be dried in 4 to 8 days. Call us at 1 315 4971058. Honkala, coords. Soil Type: Grows best in deep alluvial soils. Influence of nitrogen on growth and productivity of short-rotation Populus trichocarpa X Populus deltoides hybrids. It typically maintains a dominant position in the canopy via superior growth rates. Cottonwood tree seeds can make quite the mess, so it’s understandable to want them gone. The Black Cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) grows prolifically along the waterways of the rainy Pacific Northwest. The nail-holding strength of the wood is low. Heartwood MC averages 162 percent, sapwood MC averages 146 percent. It is one of the largest of some 40 species of Populus and is the tallest, fastest-growing hardwood in the western United States. Aggressive roots can disturb concrete and invade water lines. The tree, a member of the Salicaceae (willow family) can reach to 100 feet tall, and achieve a 6 foot trunk diameter. Moderate crowding produces rapid crown closure (2 to 4 years), which suppresses competing vegetation and eliminates the need for further vegetation management treatments. Site Preparation and Vegetative Management Newly planted or establishing black cottonwoods are extremely sensitive to vegetative competition, particularly from grasses and herbs. SACHSSE, H. 1975. In fact, Cisco says the seeds can sprout in … One of the unique aspects of cottonwood trees is the white soft fluff that seems to get everywhere. Voles and mice cause serious losses on grassy or herbaceous sites. Characteristics Black cottonwood is a soft, light wood of uniform texture. HSIANG, T., and G.A. Tolerance, Crown Position Black cottonwood is intolerant of shade. Black cottonwood. BASSMAN, J.H., and J.C. ZWIER. For sawlog or veneer production, moderate crowding is necessary to maintain stem form, reduce branching and forking, and induce self-pruning. Outdoor Planting: If your seeds do not require stratification: the best time to plant tree and shrub seeds outdoors is after the last frost in your area (spring). Spatial variation in black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) foliar nutrient concentrations at seven alluvial sites in coastal British Columbia. Black cottonwood begins producing seed at about 8- 10 years – abundant seed is usually produced every year. How to Use Cottonwood. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 19:372-377. The leaf has fine teeth, unlike the other cottonwoods. The female flowers mature into 4-inch long branches of light green capsules that split open in late spring and early summer and fill the air with white cotton-like plumes bearing seeds. in that time. In bending applications, almost 70 percent of the pieces failed. FREE SHIPPING ON ORDERS $60+ TO THE USA & CANADA, Black Cottonwood Tree(Populus trichocarpa). USDA Forest Service, Washington D.C. Agriculture Handbook 654. Open-grown trees develop deep crowns with large branches, often on single, massive stems. 1993. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 23:1863-1869. Washington State Cooperative Extension; Oregon State University Extension Service; University of Idaho Cooperative Extension System; USDA, [Olympia, Washington]. Cottonwood thrives in the humid climate of the coastal Northwest, although it grows along rivers in arid regions as well. Elevation Black cottonwood grows from sea level to 6000 ft at the northern end of its range, to 5000 ft in the Cascade Range, and up to 7000 ft in interior mountains. Your seeds will naturally stratify during the cold winter. 1992. Finishing Cottonwood is generally painted rather than clear-coated or stained in applications that require finishes. Black cottonwood is normally a dioecious species, with male and female catkins produced on separate trees. Refer to the publication High yield hybrid poplar plantations in the Pacific Northwest for detailed information on plantation culture. Seed generally ripens in late May and June in the Northwest, and it is rapidly disseminated by wind and water. Names: Black Cottonwood is also known as Balsam Poplar. There, it quickly sprouts from tiny seeds, cut stumps, roots, and even branch cuttings. HEILMAN, P.E., and F.G. XIE. Cottonwood trees are male and female, and only the female types form seeds (and cotton). Cottonwood is a well-known, common tree along rivers and streams throughout the West.Cultivation of hybrid poplars (Populus trichocarpa x. P. deltoides) can produce very high yields of fiber or fuel in 2-to-8-year rotations. Effect of partial defoliation on growth and carbon exchange of two clones of young Populus trichocarpa Torr. Regeneration also occurs from abcised shoots with green leaves, which root where they fall or are deposited by water. Gently water your seeds to keep moist, not soaking wet. The wood is subject to fuzzing and scratching when sanded, which contributes to problems in finishing. Strew the tiny seeds on the surface of the seedbed at the rate of about 300 seeds per 1 square foot, and water the site so they work their way into the soil. If your seeds require pretreatment: you should plant your seeds outdoors before the ground freezes in your area (late September to early November). Volume 2, Hardwoods. Populus trichocarpa and over 1000 other quality seeds for sale. Insects and Diseases Many insects feed on black cottonwood, but none have caused serious problems as yet. Black cottonwood hybrid plantations use cuttings of 1- to 2-year-old wood. A member of the birch family, swamp cottonwood is also known as black cottonwood, river cottonwood, downy poplar and swamp poplar. But this is a job you don’t want to DIY. It can grow 125 to 150 feet tall. Stand Management Diameter growth of black cottonwood is very responsive to increased growing space. Quantity. In these conditions, cottonwood can average 5' in growth per year for its first 25 years. Growth and Yield Height growth of black cottonwood often exceeds 5 ft per year for at least 10 years, and trees may reach diameters of 6 to 8 in. A mixture of red alder and black cottonwood can improve the growth of cottonwood via nitrogen fixed by the red alder. trichocarpa) is a native tree that grows in northern, southern and central California. The fluffy seeds can travel 20 miles on a breeze, they can be carried on streams and rivers and rest in a vernal pool. During a tree's 125-year lifespan, it may rise to a height of 150' with a diameter ranging from 7' to 8'. Sometime around May these fruits erupt, creating a “cottonwood snow storm.” The seeds are covered in a white fluff that helps them to travel on the wind for many miles. Bending strength is classed as low, while in stiffness and toughness, black cottonwood is rated as intermediate. Terminal buds 17-20 mm long with 6-7 visible scales, lateral buds parallel to twig. Cottonwoods commonly occur in mixed stands as scattered, emergent trees, with crowns far above associated species. Plant cottonwoods only if your house has a large expanse of outdoor land for maximum effect. Raptors such as osprey frequently nest in cottonwood. It is also called Western balsam poplar and California poplar. Product Recovery Most cottonwood is used for pulp and paper because of its softness, light color, and ease of bleaching. Seedbeds must remain moist for up to 1 month for good germination and establishment. Other poplar (Populus) and willow (Salix) species may grow in your area and have similar medicinal benefits, so I encourage you to research for proper identification and usage. Oxidative stains are sometimes present in cottonwood. SWAN. long. In pure stands, dominance is rapidly expressed and inferior trees die out quickly. Fungal decay is common in wood after weather damage to tops, producing good conditions for cavity-nesting birds. Research Contribution 8. Cruising and Harvesting Diameter at breast height and total height can be used with tables or equations to estimate total tree volumes in cubic feet and sawlog volume. To maintain other species with cottonwood, spacing and proportion of the super-dominant cottonwood must be controlled. It is the tallest broadleaf tree in western North America. Germination may occur in 1 week or as long as 3 months (depending on the species). The Botany of Cottonwood. Once your seeds germinate, move each seed into its own container under the growing lights and on the heat mat. Genetics Many insects feed on black cottonwood, but none have caused serious problems as yet. Populus balsamifera ssp. Leaves of Black Cottonwood. Herbaceous associates include western swordfern, ladyfern, horsetail, stinging nettle, hedge nettle, false Solomon's-seal, Canada violet buttercup, bittercress, angelica, enchanter’s-nightshade, golden-saxifrage, and bedstraw. Heartwood is classed as moderately difficult to penetrate with wood preservatives. Gently water your seeds to keep moist, not soaking wet. The seed catkins bear nearly spherical capsules, about 4 mm, which split into 3 parts to release silky tufts ("cotton") with attached small seeds (about 2 mm long). The trees are notorious for fluffy strings of seeds that get carried great distances in the breeze. Suitability and Productivity of Sites There are no guides for estimating site productivity for black cottonwood in Oregon and Washington. Beaver are often within range, and remove many trees for dams and food. 1992. Regeneration from Vegetative Sprouts Black cottonwood sprouts readily from stumps or from buried fragments of branches. KELLOGG, R.M., and E.P. Cottonwood favors moist, well-drained soil along waterways. Common Name: COTTONWOOD Habit: Tree.Stem: 40 m; young bark smooth, pale yellow-green to gray; older bark furrowed, brown to gray; twigs with swellings below leaf scars; winter bud generally resinous, scales > 3.Leaf: juvenile, adult, late-season leaves may differ in size, shape, hairiness; generally glabrous; blade 3--11 cm, elliptic to deltate, veins pinnate or +- palmate, tip generally elongate. Cottonwood’s paintability rating falls in the middle range when compared to other hardwoods. BOWERSOX, T.W., L.R. Where seedlings become established in great numbers, they thin out naturally by age 5 because the weaker seedlings of this shade-intolerant species are suppressed (23). Seed may remain viable for up to 1 year when dried and stored at cold temperatures. Much of the precipitation may fall as snow. Look for the male 'Siouxland' variety, which grows 2 feet to 3 feet per year, and you’ll have a cottonwood tree minus the cotton. Mixed-species Stands Black cottonwood must maintain a dominant crown position to survive and grow. Keep your growing lights on 14 hours per day. The British Columbia Forest Service has identified site-quality classes for natural cottonwood. Place your seeds 1 inch to 1 ½ inches below the soil surface. Surface roughness and torn grain result from planing and shaping; bore holes in cottonwood show considerable roughness and variation in size. P. 570-576 in Silvics of North America. Decay fungi are common; two species are noted for significant damage in British Columbia, Spongipellis delectans and Pholiota destruens. Fastest growing northwest native large tree. In the Pacific Northwest, black cottonwood is most abundant in the Puget Sound basin and in the Columbia and Willamette river basins. HINCKLEY, and R.F. Tool wear and dulling is low because of the wood’s low density. Today, hybrid black poplar timber is used to make artificial limbs, wine cases, pallets, shelving, bowls and toys. High yield hybrid poplar plantations in the Pacific Northwest. Cuttings are planted in spring to a depth of 12 to 16 in., with at least one leaf bud aboveground. Trichocarpa means with hairy fruits, referring to its fluffy seeds. The bark is gray with tenticels, and leaves are glossy dark green on top and light green on the undersides. 1989. About Swamp Cottonwood Trees. Advantages of an effective weed control program for Populus hybrids. It is generally perpetuated in such environments by recurring floods. Temperatures range from a maximum of 60 to 117°F to a minimum of -53 to 32°F. long and 0.4 to 1.2 in. & Gray. These trees have been very important to the native people living in North America… 1990. Keep your seedlings indoors for 2-3 months before transplanting outdoors in the spring (May to June). Its resistance to cupping and checking associated with outdoor exposure and weathering is very poor. Associated Vegetation Several species of willow are the major associates of black cottonwood on recent alluvium along most major rivers in the Northwest. They have lustrous, bright green foliage in summer that changes to brilliant yellow in fall. Climate Throughout its wide range, black cottonwood grows in climates that vary from humid to arid. Ecological Role Black cottonwood is a pioneer species specifically adapted to colonizing and dominating areas disturbed by floodwaters. Cottonwood trees get their name from the fluffy cotton-like seeds produced by the female tree. HEILMAN, P.E., R.F. The Black Cottonwood, Populus balsamifera, grows mostly west of the Rocky Mountains and is the largest Western cottonwood. Demand for black cottonwood lumber is occasionally good. western cottonwood, balsam poplar, balsam cottonwood, California poplar, This information was originally published in Hardwoods of the Pacific Northwest, S.S. Niemiec, G.R. The black cottonwood is a fast-growing, large broadleaf tree that can grow up to 200 feet tall and more than 8 feet in diameter. Seed Black cottonwood seeds are minute, and are tufted with cottony hairs. Without disturbance, cottonwood is replaced by other species on upland sites. It is a large tree, growing to a height of 3050 m and a trunk diameter of over 2 m, which makes it the largest poplar species in the Americas. Appendix 1, Table 3 provides information on clear strength values, as well as comparative values for similar species. Repeated coppicing is quite successful. It is normally fairly shortlived, but some trees may live for up to 400 years Forbes 2006. The high MC, however, does not cause an unnecessarily elongated schedule. For more swamp cottonwood information, read on. Burns and B.H. trichocarpa (Torr. Soils Black cottonwood grows best on deep alluvial soils with good aeration and abundant moisture. Sixty percent of the total volume (456 MMCF) of black cottonwood is found in the Puget Sound subregion. Longer rotations require thinning to maintain diameter growth. Average shrinkage from green to ovendry is 3.6 percent radially and 8.6 percent tangentially. It is hardy to zone (UK) 5. Complete site preparation and continued control of competing vegetation is essential for good performance in plantations. 1990. It grows in an upright form to a height of 100 feet, with active growth during the spring and … Last measured in April, 2008, this black cottonwood was found to be standing at 155 ft (47 m) tall, 29 ft (8.8 m) around, with 527 points. CHASTAGNER. Various trial plantings indicate that annual yield rates from managed cottonwood can average 150 to 300 ft3 per acre for up to 24 years. Pacific Northwest Bulletin PNW 356. Physical properties of black cottonwood and balsam poplar. (108 in. 1993. Although cottonwood trees are really attractive and add to the appeal of their surroundings, their immense size makes them unsuitable for small yards. Cytospora canker (C. chrysosperma) is common in natural forests and may be a threat to regeneration from cuttings. maximum). Cytospora canker (C. chrysosperma) is common in natural forests and may be a threat to regeneration from cuttings. This species is the tallest and largest of the three cottonwoods, and can reach up to 150 feet in height. Male and female flowers (catkins) are borne on separate trees beginning in early March (or as late as mid-June in the north). Mechanized harvesting is quite suitable for typical plantations on agricultural lands (fiber farms). Verein fuer Forstliche Standortskunde und Forstpflanzenzuchtung 24:68. Best results in planing were obtained with a hook angle of 15°. Oregon State University, Forest Research Laboratory. Black Cottonwood (Populus balsamifera L. ssp. III. Tree Physiology 11:325-339. It also colonizes disturbed upland sites with adequate moisture. Geographic Range Black cottonwood grows from Kodiak Island in Alaska (lat 62°N) to northern Baja California (lat 31°N), and eastward to the Rocky Mountains in Idaho, Montana, and Canada. Other common associates are red alder, Oregon ash, bigleaf maple, Douglas-fir, western redcedar, western hemlock, Sitka spruce, grand fir, birch, cherry, and hawthorn. Machining Cottonwoods generally machine poorly. Viability is usually high, although it is often short-lived. Cottonwood regeneration is common after logging on more upland sites in northern Washington. Detailed Description. Structure and pattern of variation in a 3-year field test. trichocarpa (Torr.& Gray ex Hook.) in diameter. The average specific gravity is 0.32 (green) or 0.37 (ovendry). Black Cottonwoods make millions of seeds, usually in the last week of May and the seeds are dispersed on the winds- casting themselves as far from the mother tree as possible. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 20:1089-1097. Black cottonwood seedlings do not usually become established in abundance after logging unless special measures are taken to prepare the bare, moist seedbeds required for initial establishment (23). Most of the interest in the productivity of managed stands is focused on the intensive cultivation of selected clones or hybrids, in which case productivity is quite dependent on the clone under specific conditions. STETTLER. Black Cottonwood ( Populus balsamifera ssp. Commonly found along rivers and streams. Durability Black cottonwood is a nondurable species that will degrade rapidly if exposed to conditions favorable to decay organisms. Black cottonwood has been successfully sawn into lumber and peeled for veneer. Protection or prevention of damage may be necessary to avoid severe losses. Seed will readily germinate on a variety of favorable sites, particularly where mineral soil has been exposed or … Indoor Planting: If your seeds require stratification or scarification – do the recommended pretreatment before planting indoors. HANLEY, and R.W. In much of the Northwest, these conditions are restricted to wet bottomlands. It is a well-known tree found along rivers and streams throughout the West. Uses Cottonwood is used for veneer, pulp, pallets, interior case good parts, boxes, crates, moulding (painted), and studs. Forest Science 39:419-431. It is one of the largest of some 40 species of Populus and is the tallest, fastest-growing hardwood in the western United States. McLENNAN, D.S. BRAATNE, J.H., T.M. Tree Planters Notes 43(3):81-86. 1995. In its range, annual precipitation can vary from 10 to 120 in., with about one-third falling during the growing season. In forest stands, cottonwoods develop narrow, cylindrical crowns and long clear boles. Spermatophyta – Seed plants Division ... Family: Salicaceae – Willow family Genus: Populus L. – cottonwood Species: Populus balsamifera L. – balsam poplar Subspecies: Populus balsamifera L. ssp. Decay fungi are common; two species are noted for significant damage in British Columbia, Spongipellis delectans and Pholiota destruens. Indoor Planting: If your seeds require stratification or scarification – do the recommended pretreatment before planting indoors. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 16:491-496. Fremont’s Cottonwood (Populus Fremontii) The wood is moderately susceptible to sap stains and very susceptible to molds. Gray ex Hook.) The wood is straight-grained and odorless and tasteless when dry. Size, Longevity, and Form Mature cottonwoods attain heights of 125 to 150 ft (225 ft maximum) and diameters of 48 to 60 in. A cottonwood in Willamette Mission State Park near Salem, Oregon, holds the national and world records. Pulpwood can be grown in 10 to 15 years and sawlogs in 20 to 25 years. HEILMAN. Keep your heat mat on 24 hours per day. Interactions with Wildlife Because of its large size and relatively long life, black cottonwood is a superior wildlife tree in riparian areas. A leaf rust (Melampsora sp.) Black cottonwood is a large deciduous tree belonging to the willow family (Salicaceae). College of ForestryOregon State University Corvallis, OR 97331-5704 Phone: 541-737-2004owic@oregonstate.edu................... Oregon Producers and Users of Black Cottonwood, High yield hybrid poplar plantations in the Pacific Northwest, Forest Engineering, Resources & Management. Read on for more cottonwood tree facts. Cultivation of hybrid poplars (Populus trichocarpa x. P. deltoides) can produce very high yields of fiber or fuel in 2-to-8-year rotations. Stems and branches may bend or break under heavy snow or ice. The wood is considered semi-ring to diffuse porous. According to swamp cottonwood information, these trees are relatively tall, reaching some 100 feet (30 m.) at maturity. Cottonwood is a well-known, common tree along rivers and streams throughout the West. The species is dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required). 1990. Animals significantly hinder establishment of black cottonwood plantations. Influence of soil water on the physiological and morphological components of plant water balance in Populus trichocarpa, Populus deltoides and their F1 hybrids. Young trees are susceptible to mortality or damage from early or late frosts. BLANKENHORN. Despite these apparent shortcomings, cottonwoods show some potential as framing materials because their strength properties are comparable to those of currently used softwood species of similar densities. Elk and deer can devastate plantings with browsing and antler rubbing. Natural rooting habits are not well known; planted cuttings develop deep, spreading roots. The sapwood is almost white, and merges into the light grey or greyish-brown heartwood, which may contain dark streaks. When the wood is wet, it has a characteristic disagreeable odor. Germination usually occurs in May or during the spring season. Populus trichocarpa is a deciduous Tree growing to 40 m (131ft) by 12 m (39ft) at a fast rate. Flower of Black Cottonwood. The rays are very fine and scarcely visible with a hand lens. Cottonwoods (Populus deltoids) are massive shade trees that grow naturally throughout the United States. Ref… Brayshaw) By Forest Jay Gauna. Cottonwoods have a high tendency to warp during drying because of tension wood and wet pockets. Fungal diseases are a significant threat. Timber Inventory The largest inventory of black cottonwood is in Washington, where it is third in total volume after red alder and bigleaf maple (Appendix 1, Table 1). 4-5 foot seedling $6.00. Some upland sites with deep, moist, and fertile soils are also productive for black cottonwood. STRAUSS, and P.R. 1993. Regeneration from Seed Black cottonwood generally produces abundant crops of seed every year. Seeds of black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa, USDA zones 7 through 10), for example, should be soaked for six hours and those of the eastern cottonwood for 24 hours. In the Northern states – the best time to plant seeds outdoors is from May to June. After releasing their pollen, male stamens are shed. Long cuttings of up to 10 ft have been used successfully in some cases; problems with inadequate rooting and poor stem form are common with long cuttings, however. It is normally fairly short-lived, but some trees may live up to 400 years. Vessels are moderately few to very numerous; pores are numerous, small, and barely visible to the naked eye. Ahrens, S. Willits, and D.E. The growth rings are inconspicuous, and are differentiated by a thin grouping of pores, which gradually increase in density at the end of the growth increment. Brayshaw – black cottonwood Subordinate Taxa … Fungal diseases are a significant threat. Black cottonwood is one of the least durable species when placed in contact with the soil or exposed to the weather. & A. Male catkins are 1” long, and produce up to 60 stamens. Frost cracks are common on larger trees. A comparative of important wood properties of the Populus trichocarpa cultivar “Senior.” Mitteilungen. Place the seed container on a heat mat under growing light(s). Weak joints are sometimes created if low-viscosity adhesives are used, or if glue spread are too low. The cottonwood tree is indigenous to North America, where it is commonly seen growing along riverbanks and streams. 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