HDAC activity (a) and IL-8 secretion (b) were measured in normal nonsmoking subjects as described in Materials and Methods. The listing of drugs in Tables II and III are current as of February 9, 1995. Discontinuation of a concomitant drug that inhibits Theophylline clearance will result in decreased serum Theophylline concentrations, unless the Theophylline dose is appropriately increased. Phenobarbital may cause respiratory depression, particularly in elderly patients and patients with COPD. Careful attention to dose reduction and frequent monitoring of serum Theophylline concentrations are required in elderly patients (see PRECAUTIONS, Monitoring Serum Theophylline Concentrations, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Dosage adjustment guided by serum Theophylline concentration. In asthmatic patients low-dose theophylline reduces eosinophils and other inflammatory markers (5–7), inhibits the eosinophilia induced by an inhaled allergen (8), and reduces the expression of cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-5 (9). Combined treatment with dexamethasone (10−10 M) and theophylline (10−5 M) markedly enhanced the effect seen with theophylline alone and this effect was similar that seen with 10−6 M dexamethasone (Fig. Biotransformation takes place through demethylation to 1-methylxanthine and 3-methylxanthine and hydroxylation to 1,3-dimethyluric acid. Data sources include IBM Watson Micromedex (updated 7 Dec 2020), Cerner Multum™ (updated 4 Dec 2020), ASHP (updated 3 Dec 2020) and others. 1. Neither these drugs nor the nonselective PDE inhibitor IBMX (10−1 to 10−3 M) had any direct effect on HDAC activity (Fig. Serum Theophylline concentration monitoring: The serum Theophylline concentration should be measured immediately upon presentation, 2-4 hours later, and then at sufficient intervals, e.g., every 4 hours, to guide treatment decisions and to assess the effectiveness of therapy. The results were essentially identical to those obtained with the radioactive assay. The radioactivity in extracted core histones was determined by liquid scintillation counting and normalized to protein level. General monitoring procedures: Electrocardiographic monitoring should be initiated on presentation and continued until the serum Theophylline level has returned to a non-toxic level. This causes stimulation of cardiac function and relaxation of smooth muscle; Inhibition of cell surface receptors for adenosine. Whenever there is a new illness, worsening of a chronic illness or a change in the patient's treatment regimen that may alter Theophylline clearance (e.g., fever >102°F sustained for ≥24 hours, hepatitis, or drugs listed in Table II are added or discontinued). The treatment of HDAC extracts with alkaline phosphatase reduced HDAC activity (521 ± 53 vs. 897 ± 64 dpm/μg of protein), confirming a role for phosphorylation in HDAC activity. The molecular mechanism for the anti-inflammatory action of theophylline is currently unknown, but low-dose theophylline is an effective add-on therapy to corticosteroids in controlling asthma. A single dose of sorbitol may be used to promote stooling to facilitate removal of Theophylline bound to charcoal from the gastrointestinal tract. Mechanism of Action: Theophylline has two distinct actions in the airways of patients with reversible obstruction; smooth muscle relaxation (i.e., bronchodilation) and suppression of the response of the airways to stimuli (i.e., non-bronchodilator prophylactic effects). Since little Theophylline is excreted unchanged in the urine and since active metabolites of Theophylline (i.e., caffeine, 3-methylxanthine) do not accumulate to clinically significant levels even in the face of end-stage renal disease, no dosage adjustment for renal insufficiency is necessary in adults and children >3 months of age. The most common causes of chronic Theophylline overdosage include patient or care giver error in dosing, healthcare professional prescribing of an excessive dose or a normal dose in the presence of factors known to decrease the rate of Theophylline clearance, and increasing the dose in response to an exacerbation of symptoms without first measuring the serum Theophylline concentration to determine whether a dose increase is safe. Individual patients may experience larger changes in serum Theophylline concentration than the value listed. Mechanism of Action – bronchodilator (exact mechanism unknown) Pharmaceutics. Other factors associated with increased Theophylline clearance include hyperthyroidism and cystic fibrosis. , often stopped without anticonvulsant therapy effect of Theophylline or dexamethasone for 30 min overdose serum... ( 10−10 M ) enhanced immunoprecipitated HDAC1 and HDAC3 in A549 cells extensively. 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