A doughnut or donut (the latter spelling often seen in American English) is a type of fried dough confection or dessert food. When heat is applied to the dough, the egg proteins will begin to unfold, or denature, and then form new bonds with one another, thus creating a gel-like network that can hold water and gas.[36]. [citation needed], Kuih keria is a hole doughnut made from boiled sweet potato that is mashed. Ring doughnuts are formed by one of two methods: by joining the ends of a long, skinny piece of dough into a ring, or by using a doughnut cutter, which simultaneously cuts the outside and inside shape, leaving a doughnut-shaped piece of dough and a doughnut hole (from the dough removed from the center). A plant which bears its nutlike seeds underground, such as a peanut or Bambara groundnut. Originals, Selections, &C. for the Times. A few sweet, doughnut-style pastries are regional in nature. Chinese cuisine features long, deep-fried doughnut sticks that are often quite oily, hence their name in Mandarin, yóutiáo (油條, "oil strips"); in Cantonese, this doughnut-style pastry is called yàuhjagwái (油炸鬼, "ghosts fried in oil"). Emulsifying agents are essential to doughnut formation because they prevent the fat molecules from separating from the water molecules in the dough. [36] Milk is utilized in the making of doughnuts, but in large scale bakeries, one form of milk used is nonfat dry milk solids. The main emulsifier in egg yolk is called lecithin, which is a phospholipid. A Guinness Book of Records largest doughnut made up of 90,000 individual doughnuts was set in Sydney in 2007 as part of a celebration for the release of The Simpsons Movie.[85]. Doughnuts can readily be found at the many Dunkin' Donuts branches spread across Pakistan. The texture can range from soft and fluffy, to sticky and chewy, to hard and crunchy (in the latter case, they are known as pilipit). The egg white proteins, mainly ovalbumin, "function as structure formers. and pl. [26] According to the Oxford Dictionaries while "doughnut" is used internationally, the spelling "donut" is American. Cider doughnuts are a cake doughnut with apple cider in the batter. The sugar used in baking is essentially sucrose, and besides imparting sweetness in the doughnut, sugar also functions in the color and tenderness of the final product. Malasadas were brought to the Hawaiian Islands by early Portuguese settlers, and are a variation on Portugal's filhós. Frosted, glazed, powdered, Boston cream, coconut, sour cream, cinnamon, chocolate, and jelly are some of the varieties eaten in the United States and Canada. Jam doughnuts are particularly popular[83] and a unique aspect of Australian culture, especially in Melbourne, Victoria and the Queen Victoria Market, where they are a tradition. There are many other specialized doughnut shapes such as old-fashioned, bars or Long Johns (a rectangular shape), or with the dough twisted around itself before cooking. [66], In Belgium, the smoutebollen in Dutch, or croustillons in French, are similar to the Dutch kind of oliebollen, but they usually do not contain any fruit, except for apple chunks sometimes. [original research?] Some spurgos are similar to Polish pączki, but some specific recipes, such as cottage cheese doughnuts (varškės spurgos), were invented independently. These tightly linked glutenin subunits associate more loosely, along with gliadin, into larger gluten aggregates. [citation needed] Consequently, they are considerably smaller than a standard doughnut and tend to be spherical. I'm pretty sure that legend comes from a speech John Kennedy gave in Berlin. The policeman's staple food. [7], Hanson Gregory, an American, claimed to have invented the ring-shaped doughnut in 1847 aboard a lime-trading ship when he was 16 years old. Popular variants include custard-filled doughnuts, and more recently Nutella-filled doughnuts. Shakoy or siyakoy from the Visayas islands (also known as lubid-lubid in the northern Philippines) uses a length of dough twisted into a distinctive rope-like shape before being fried. References extend to objects or actions that are doughnut-shaped. The major whey protein in the nonfat milk solids is known as beta-lactoglobulin, and a crucial feature of its structure is that there exists a single sulfhydryl group that is protected by the alpha helix, and when heating of the milk solids occurs, these groups participate in disulfide exchanges with other molecules. [56][57] Kumukunsi is a jalebi-like native doughnut from the Maguindanao people. doughnut translate: 炸面包圈;炸果酱面包. Dough is usually described as a viscoelastic material, meaning that its rheology depends on both the viscosity and the elasticity. After frying, ring doughnuts are often topped. May 8, 2019 - Six Handcrafted Flavors: Birthday Cake, Caramel, Cinnamon, Red Velvet, Triple Chocolate Crunch, and our signature Tie-Dye Arrives fresh - guaranteed! Telugu Meaning of Dough or Meaning of Dough in Telugu. [6], Another theory on their origin came to light in 2013, when a recipe for "dow nuts" was found in a book of recipes and domestic tips written around 1800 by the wife of Baron Thomas Dimsdale,[12] the recipe being given to the dowager Baroness by an acquaintance who transcribed for her the cooking instructions for a "dow nut". The intended meaning was that the USA would always defend West Berlin against Soviet invasion. [13], The earliest known recorded usage of the term dates to an 1808 short story[14] describing a spread of "fire-cakes and dough-nuts". 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